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The University also receives students from other countries, such as: Colombia, Korea and from other nationalities looking for the opportunity to study Portuguese in India.

The PL courses welcome students from several academic centers of the university, such as School of Language, Literature and Culture Studies and 1. Language spoken in Kerala, South India. Language spoken in West Bengal 3. Hindi and English are the languages most used for communication in the JNU. Most of the students who attends the PL course aims to reach an increasingly growing labour market in India, especially in relation to the emerging economic blocs.

However, although this economic sector is one of the main motivating factors to learn the language, the students try to interact with the language, as they take interest to understand it as a cultural, artistic and historical event. In an attempt to bring the reader in a closer contact with this reality, we selected excerpts from texts written by students which describe their relation with the language4: The Portuguese language allowed me to know new dimensions in life not only as culture, geography, linguistic, history, but also human values, new ways of living life.

It was a wonderful experience to be able to learn this language as beautiful and affectionate as the natives who speak it. BA Indian student from JNU I always considered Portuguese language as a sister of my native language Spanish and never understood why it was never taught in high school or college since Brazil is so close to our Spanish speaking countries, from which we consume music, TV shows and even do important business with it.

I only have the opportunity to learn it until I was studying my master, and as student of linguistic I could not let this pass anymore. MA Colombian student from JNU It is said that learning a foreign language is like having another soul and it can be learned easily by knowing more about the culture of the particular country in which that language is spoken. If I get the opportunity I would like to do research on the similarities and differences between the societies of Indian and Brazilian, as both countries can learn a lot from each other's historical experiences.

The students' speeches were transcribed ipis litteris.

Pai Contra Mãe by Machado de Assis

They understand, therefore, that learning a language means being able to access the secrets of other cultures and discover the most diverse ways of living and dealing with the language, an experience that contributes to the socialization of knowledge, in order to open the way for intercultural exchanges.

In the process of intercultural learning - thinking more specifically in the contexts of India and Brazil - it is possible, for example, to know PL by understanding the history and tracing diverse cultures: walking interactively through the streets of Goa, describing its architecture and reading front stories with words written in Portuguese are aspects that can be easily related to the historical centers of Brazil, like city of Salvador-Bahia, Olinda- Pernambuco, Ouro Preto-Minas Gerais, among many others.

This relationship of interculturality is also evoked through scents of Indian spices, well present in those countries that have PL as their official language and in so many other places in the world, where cultures and languages interact. Thinking in these ways of learning and experiencing the PL we have organized this book, which is special for the year of the year India and Brazil complete 70 years of diplomatic relations. During this period, the two countries had many partnerships, including the Brazilian lectureship in JNU6.

The initiative has promoted an enriching dialogue not only among students, who have had the opportunity to improve their knowledge about aspects of Brazilian culture and other countries that make up the CPLP through language and literature, but also for Brazilian lecturers who have the chance to deepen their knowledge, and learn and interact with the culture of the country in which they teach as outsiders.

We believe this book discusses not only the historical path of PL in different contexts, but also make readers think about the language requirements of the 21st century. Issues such as interculturality, identity processes, decolonization of knowledge, breaking of borders, and language policies to promote 6.

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JNU-Brazil lectureship takes place since Therefore, reflecting on these issues has a direct repercussion on the choice of teaching methodology, positioning on the concept of language, elaboration of didactic material, and above all, promoting a dialogue between professionals working on different fronts, thus opening a space for deepening discussions and re-thinking about our visions and practices regarding the teaching of the PL in different contexts.

This mixture of places and regions reinforces the importance of establishing a wider and rich discussion on the theme of interlinking of knowledge and that calls for new learning and perspectives. To that end, we present the chapters that compose that important work with texts in English and Portuguese, as described below: In the first chapter Subsidies for a Lusophone Conceptualization, Regina Pires de Brito analyses the concept of Lusophony.

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According to the author, the Lusophone space opens cultural and geographical diverse context, which does not mean "smooth sailing", using here her words, but it is extremely necessary to pay attention to these ways. The analysis brings up a rich discussion about the term Lusophony starting from a linguistic and historical-cultural perspective which highlights places like Angola, Brazil, Mozambique and East Timor.

She considers, therefore, Lusophony as a plural idea that allows reflecting about the function that the Portuguese language assumes in various contexts and in the construction of identities. They not only emphasize its presence over there but also affirm its importance for the understanding of cultural formation of the state and of India itself. Remembering that India has been a multilingual country, this multilingualism still marks its presence in Goa, because historically it has been a state language along with Konkani, Marathi, English, among others. The authors add that apart from a monolingual context one should consider contributions of Portuguese language and literature of Goa for the Indian literature.

He points out how Portugal used its language for political and spiritual subjugation in Goa. The Church and the Crown worked together in Goa to Lusitanise its inhabitants. Decrees were issued by the Church and the Goan Councils prohibited the use of Konkani in public and private. Both Catholics and Hindus were punished for speaking and reading in their mother tongues.

Due to the faulty and narrow language policies of the Portuguese government, neither Portuguese was accepted by the people nor did Konkani flourished.

Literatura, Língua e Cultura Na Guiné-bissau

According to her, for characterizing a literary project of Macao it is necessary to consider some principles: the interaction between the different communities of the region; reflecting on the complex triad of production, reception and circulation; and recognizing different levels of history present there. The author analyses some recent linguistic policies adopted by the Government of Macao, above all, in relation to the presence of Portuguese in this context. The text also calls for the attention of the idea of a multilingual literature emphasizing different identities in which it would be possible that the Sinophone and Lusophone capital coexist.

For this, they bring a pair of events that took place between the years , when, before Portuguese colonization, this country was invaded by the Indonesians. When Timor finally became independent and constituted the Democratic Republic of East Timor, in may , the Portuguese along with Tetum were declared official languages.

But what would be the importance of Portuguese language in this scenario?

Pai Contra Mãe

In their detailed linguistic analysis, Brito and Corte-Real show in this chapter the motives that make Portuguese a supplementary and complementary language to Tetum. Cavalcante provide an analysis of the program "Qualification of Teachers and Teaching of Portuguese Language in East Timor" PQLP , highlighting questions and thoughts about learning acquired in this process. The authors specifically raise the following questions: what is necessary for a teacher who works on cooperation in complex intercultural contexts?

How does one produce and implement emancipator practices that aim at the decolonization of knowledge?

How does one carry out cooperation without an implicit idea of a new colonization? With the objective to deepen understanding around these questions, they bring together the influences of the educational actions that occurred through the cooperation between the two countries. In this chapter, they show us how the program has been changing over the years due to Timorese demands, and highlight shared knowledge of this South-South experience, which involved mutual collaboration.

Elgebaly, after returning to Brazil with the completion of his Ph. In the process of elaboration of the discipline, he indicates the importance of interaction of social media whatsapp, facebook , the choice of teaching material and the relevance of studying the Portuguese language not only for the understanding of sociocultural context of the countries that speak this language as official, but also for the understanding of the historical- cultural aspect of Arab world.

According to him, all these activities allowed the development of dialogues between the secular and religious culture and the critical thinking of the tradition of the older generation, enabling students to think interculturally about their reality and exposing them to cultural difference. The chapter invites each reader to travel in this journey through Egypt, having PL as an important vehicle. In Mozambique case, there are many texts which highlight identity marks of ethnic groups and thus contribute to the development of the interculturality of this country through the valorization of its multiethnic, plurilingual and multicultural characteristics.

The authors conclude that the approach of a literary text should incorporate in a reinforced way, beyond the linguistic, a sociocultural dimension of the students in the given situation, opening the field of the knowledge of 'other', in this way making the classroom representations of absent cultures possible. According to the author, there is a debate about the view that, in Angola, a specific norm is already under construction that has governed the linguistic behavior of its speakers in a formal situation of communication, contrary to the standard of European Portuguese, abbreviated as EP.

The author informs us about the current teaching framework of the language, and points towards what motivates the public to be interested in the language. He mentions one of his experience in language teaching at the Language Center in Zacatenco of the National Polytechnic Institute. The author describes the importance of including the cultural aspects in the language classes as a way to involve students in the culture of the target language. He emphasizes that in working with interculturality and IT's, in this case, online radios via Internet, Youtube and Skype, students can understand regional, cultural and artistic expressions that could only be learned by visiting the country.

In addition, language teachers have infinite possibilities to innovate in their classes and improve their practice. The experienced linguist Gilvan Muller discusses the normative processes of language and preliminarily explores scenarios for the management of the standards of PL system in the light of geopolitical changes planned for the second half of the 21st century.

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  6. According to the author, PL's system of norms has been characterized since the beginning of the twentieth century by the dualism between the normative processes of Brazil and Portugal, which led to two non-cooperative norms. The Portuguese standard was adopted by the new independent PL nations after Demographic projection data for PL countries up to the year points towards a high population growth in PALOP7 in the coming decades, especially Angola and Mozambique, and for a population decrease in Brazil and Portugal, in such 7.

    Portuguese-speaking African countries. Opening the Dialogue xxxv a way that a large part of the PL speakers would be in the Southern Africa Angola and Mozambique at the turn of the century. You will notice in the reading of the book Portuguese Language in India and in Other Lands that although each one writes from their own context, the chapters are very well-connected. After having read each chapters of the book, one is left with the impression that all authors are seated around a large table or simultaneously connected on a virtual platform, having a meaningful dialogue about aspects surrounding the teaching of PL nowadays.

    Such attunement in the writings symbolically represents the commitment of each author to the study, theoretically and practically, on issues related to the PL. It is possible to identify in each one's discourse that they use common terms such as: interculturality, decolonization, identities, Lusophony s , plurilingualism, but it is also important to emphasize that despite this harmony in the discourses present in this book, each text presents its peculiarities.

    This is due to the language in its constant movement of linguistic, cultural and socio-historical interaction. We hope that this will be only the first of our hallmark work from the School of Language, Literature and Culture Studies JNU, India in terms of building dialogue in these dimensions, after all, there is still much more to spread, to discuss and to learn about the subject. The editors. Portuguese has about 30 thousand kilometers of frontiers with other languages, it is one of the only three languages used in all continents, and none of those 8 Portuguese-speaking countries border on another Lusophone.

    Besides that, in the last years, the growth and rise of appreciation for Portuguese has been noted in the world, along with a spotlight on the economy and culture of some of those Portuguese-speaking countries. Finally, considering social media, Portuguese is 1. In all, this Lusophone community lives and uses, singularly, a common official language, specifically characterized in each of its multiple contexts, validating the Lusophony of those who also speak Portuguese and, here, it is quite possible to say Lusophonies.

    We start with a Lusophony conceptualized as a symbolic area — linguistically, but also as a culture area Martins, Beyond that: an area constructed in the intersection of cultures which also express themselves in Portuguese, an inter multi cultural area. We are speaking of a Lusophony whose identity is constructed in a continuous dynamic of identity knowledge and recognition, in which differences and affinities are distinguishable.

    A legitimate Lusophony, that notes the different roles that the language takes on in each place, that is edified by the evocation of diverse accents, and that, in the end, points to a conceptualization free of the discomforts that the word might carry in anachronistic discourses because of its identification with a centralization of the Lusophone world in relation to the other official Portuguese-speaking countries. The Lusophony that makes sense — the one for which we advocate — capable of establishing a dialogue between cultures, has centers everywhere or no center at all , as, in a certain way, Celso Cunha already pointed out in the second half of the 20th century: [ Retrievable from www.

    Top 10 Fastest Growing Facebook Languages, And, in certain ways, for justifiable reasons in the Romania Nova, the language has continued to be stronger in the ancient Metropolis. The capital of the Portuguese language is wherever the cultural meridian is found. Cunha, , pp. To reflect on Lusophony ies is to observe the functions that Portuguese takes on in the realm of its official usage, in the diaspora and in its representation around the globe — respecting specificities, validating differences, and considering similarities which structure a sense of identity or identities in the Lusophony ies.

    To this scenario, we add experiences in the Portuguese language. Experiences which we translate in a perspective of interaction, of global cultural exchange, of a certain intercultural ability that can contribute to mitigate the misunderstandings among men and to establish bridges between different cultures. That perception of inter-culturalism, applied to the 6. And notice that the concept if plural: there are Lusophnies. The idea of the Lusophone Community is that of a construction that corresponds to personal political interests.

    An adequate understanding of Lusophony requires, ultimately, that we know ourselves so that we recognize ourselves in others and before others. In such case, a tolerant coexistence is desired, stemming from an awareness that it, that same language spoken by all, can be as many as necessitated by the realities represented by each. In the search of a synthesis of the sensations the expression elicits, the Mozambican journalist Eduardo Namburete , p 64 differentiated the obviousness with which the question of Lusophony is treated in Portugal, to the naturality as the subject if broached in Brazil, to the awareness of necessity of Portuguese for the strengthening of cooperation mechanisms and the reconstruction of a new nation as East Timor faces the issue, and the skepticism with which the subject is inevitably faced on the African side.

    Over the last 15 years especially, there have been debates, oscillating from the cultural penetration of the corporate invasion on, one side, and the positions that emphasize the benefits this language provide, or could provide, in the various sectors of life in each of those countries, on the other.

    That characterization impoverishes a concept that should be more encompassing, comprising therein the historic, cultural, economic, emotional, mental, linguistic, political, and other factors of the inter- relations that are common to the countries and communities whose past have Portuguese traces. The substantial contribution of Linguistics such as Lopes , , seems to us indispensable in order to contemplate the Lusophone area as a whole, as of reflections and recommendations on Linguistic Policy and Planning — here, in Mozambique, but perfectly applicable to other multilingual contexts.

    Maintaining that identity is vital to consolidate a national sovereignty A Portuguese colony since the 16th century, East Timor was occupied by Japan and Australia during the Second World War, and suffered under Indonesian control from to It was the victim of a brutal repression.

    Their Indonesian invaders forced them to learn their language — Bahasa Indonesia — and prohibited the use of Portuguese, as well and reducing the permission of the national language, Tetum. If it chooses another path, a people with a long history will become a nation of amnesiacs, and East Timor will suffer the same destiny as all those countries that, turning their backs on their past, have deprived their citizens of the knowledge of the languages that played a vital role in the genesis of the national culture.